Alpha Centauri (32.2, first reference)—The closest star to the earth's solar system.
Callisto (19.1)—A moon of Jupiter.
Canopus (32.2)—Second brightest star in the night sky, as viewed from earth.
Clavius (7.54, first reference)—One of the moon's largest craters.
Coal Sack, or Coalsack Dark Nebula (32.2)—An interstellar cloud that obscures the light from a portion of the heavens. It is visible from earth.
Dion (34.1)—A moon of Saturn.
Enceladus (34.1)—A moon of Saturn.
Europa (18.12, first reference)—One of Jupiter's largest moons.
Ganymed (19.1)—A moon of Jupiter
Hyperion (34.1)—A moon of Saturn.
Io (19.1)—A moon of Jupiter.
Japetus (30.19)—Also Iapetus; the third largest moon of Saturn.
Jupiter (15.3, first reference)—The largest planet in the solar system.
Mare Imbrium (12.1)—A large plain on the moon, formed by volcanic eruptions.
Mars (7.1)—A planet in the solar system.
Mercury (15.19)—A planet in the solar system.
Milky Way (32.2, first reference)—The galaxy that contains our solar system.
Mimas (34.1)—A moon of Saturn.
Phoebe (34.1)—A moon of Saturn.
Rhea (34.1)—A moon of Saturn.
Sagittarius (32.2)—A constellation.
Sirius (32.2)—Brightest star in the night sky as seen from earth.
Tethys (34.1)—A moon of Saturn.
Titan (32.4, first reference)—A moon of Saturn.
Tycho (11.11, first reference)—A moon crater.
Van Allen Belts (18.7)—Layers of charged particles held in place by the Earth's magnetic field.
Literary, Artistic, and Philosophical References
Johann Sebastian Bach (33.7)
Ludwig Van Beethoven (33.7)
Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Martian Chronicles (31.14)—Project BARSOOMin 2001 is a reference to the name for Mars in the Burroughs novel (Barsoom.)
Vincent Van Gogh, Bridge at Arles (44.6)
Homer, The Odyssey (17.23, first reference)—The Greek poem is also referenced in the title. See "What's Up With the Title."
Henrik Ibsen (33.5)
Herman Melville, Moby Dick (25.33)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (33.8)
Pandora's box (12.38)—In Greek myth, a box which contained all the ills of the world.
Blaise Pascal (14.1)—A French mathematician and Christian philosopher.
William Shakespeare (33.5)
George Bernard Shaw (33.5)
Jean Sibelius (33.7)
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (33.7)
Giuseppe Verdi, Requiem Mass, (33. 6)
Leonardo da Vinci (7.39, 7.41)
H.G. Wells, War of the Worlds (31.15)
Andrew Wyeth, Christina's World (44.6)
George Anson (17.23)—A British Admiral in the 1700s.
Bali (9.43)—An Indonesian island.
Bell Systems (44.16)—The group of companies which provided telephone service to the United States from 1877 to 1984, before it was broken up by the government.
Niels Bohr (32.11)—A Danish physicist in the early 1900s.
Giovanni Deomenico Cassini (30.20)—An Italian astronomer in the 1600s.
William Caxton (9.40)—Early printer.
James Cook (17.23)—British explorer in the 1700s.
Cold War (10.10)
Albert Einstein (32.10)—Twentieth century American mathematician and physicist.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) (16.9)—The first electronic general purpose computer.
Johannes Gutenberg (9.40)—Early printer.
Kennedy Airport (7.41)
Ferdinand Magellan (17.23)—Portuguese explorer in the 1500s.
Manila Galleon (17.23)— Spanish trading ships in the early modern period.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (7.41)
Pillars of Hercules (17.23)—Ancient Greek name for the rocks at the entrance to the Strait of Gibralter.
Pleistocene Era (1.6)
Pytheas (17.23)—Ancient Greek geographer and explorer.
Sargasso Sea (42.22)—A sea in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. A lack of wind currents meant that in the past ships had great difficulty navigating out of it, resulting in legends of aimlessly drifting and abandoned ships.
Special Theory of Relativity (32.10, first reference)—The theory that nothing can travel faster than light; discovered by Albert Einstein.
Alan Turing ( 16.14)—Early twentieth century British mathematician and computer science pioneer.
Turing Test (16.14)—A test developed by Alan Turing to determine whether an artificial intelligence is sentient.
Troy (30.23)—Site of an Ancient Greek war.
John Wheeler (32.11)—An American physicist of the 1900s who invented the terms "black hole" and "wormhole."
Grand Central Station (41.24)—A train station in New York City.